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New results are reported that can improve proton beam instrumentation in radiation medicine and cancer therapy. The destructive effects of proton beams are primarily based on direct collision ionization and radiolysis of water. Resulting fragments subsequently alter the cell cycle by damaging the DNA with different efficiency. We have therefore computed the water ion and hydronium potential energy surfaces and obtained branching ratios for proton-water processes that further involve low energy electrons, OH radicals, and metastable O+ ions. In addition, all related data available in the literature are shortly summarized and reviewed. State-selective excitation and electron capture cross sections reported in this paper allow for solving the rate equations of the ion production cascade.