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Emissivity simulations in passive microwave remote sensing with 3-D numerical solutions of Maxwell equations

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5 Author(s)
Lin Zhou ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA ; Leung Tsang ; Jandhyala, V. ; Qin Li
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In the numerical Maxwell-equation model (NMM3D) of rough-surface scattering, we solve Maxwell equations in three dimensions to calculate emissivities for applications in passive microwave remote sensing of soil and ocean surfaces. The difficult cases for soil surfaces are with exponential correlation functions when the surfaces have fine-scale structures of large slopes. The difficulty for ocean surfaces is that because the emissivities are close to that of a flat surface, the emissivities have to be calculated accurately to correctly assess the rough-surface effects. In this paper, the accuracies of emissivity calculations are improved by using Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions. We further use sparse matrix canonical method to solve the matrix equation of Poggio-Miller-Chang-Harrington-Wu integral equations. Energy conservation checks are provided for the simulations. Comparisons are made with results from the pulse basis function. Numerical results are illustrated for soil and ocean surfaces respectively with exponential correlation function and ocean spectrum. The emissivities of soil are illustrated at both L- and C-bands and at multiple incidence angles for the same physical roughness parameters. The brightness temperatures for ocean surfaces are illustrated for cases with various wind speeds. We compare results with those from the sparse matrix methods. Comparisons are also made with experimental emissivity measurements of soil surfaces. Parallel computation is also implemented. Lookup tables of emissivities based on NMM3D are provided.

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:42 ,  Issue: 8 )