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Recent years have seen remarkable results in high-resolution imaging and testing of the human visual system. The ability to obtain in vivo images of the human fundus on the micrometer scale will allow for much earlier diagnosis and treatment of a range of retina diseases. These advances have been made possible in part through the use of adaptive optics (AO). In order to utilize the full numerical aperture and, hence, maximize the resolution of the eye, it is necessary to provide a means of correcting all of the ocular aberrations. The concept of AO has been used successfully to overcome this difficulty. A key component of such a system is an optical element that can be deformed to provide high-order correction of these aberrations. Existing AO systems make use of deformable mirrors that were developed for large ground-based telescopes. In a drive to reduce their size and cost, fabrication of this element using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has been actively pursued. This paper explains the challenges in high-resolution imaging of the human eye and details how MEMS technology has been used to further research in this area.