Skip to Main Content
The feasibility of temperature estimation during high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy using pulse-echo diagnostic ultrasound data has been demonstrated. This method is based upon the measurement of thermally-induced modifications in backscattered RF echoes due to thermal expansion and local changes in the speed Of Sound. It has been shown that strong ripple artifacts due to the thermo-acoustic lens effect severely corrupt the temperature estimates behind the heated region. We propose here a new imaging technique that improves the temperature estimation behind the heated region and reduces the variance of the temperature estimates in the entire image. We replaced the conventional beamforming on transmit with multiple steered plane wave insonifications using several subapertures. A two-dimensional temperature map is estimated from axial displacement maps between consecutive RF images of identically steered plane wave insonifications. Temperature estimation is then improved by averaging the two-dimensional maps from the multiple steered plane wave insonifications. Experiments were conducted in a tissue-mimicking gelatin-based phantom and in fresh bovine liver.