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This paper presents the design, simulation, and characterization of microfabricated 0.5 MHz, silicon-based, ultrasonic nozzles. Each nozzle is made of a piezoelectric drive section and a silicon resonator consisting of multiple Fourier horns, each with half wavelength design and twice amplitude magnification. Results of finite element three-dimensional (3-D) simulation using a commercial program predicted existence of one resonant frequency of pure longitudinal vibration. Both impedance analysis and measurement of longitudinal vibration confirmed the simulation results with one pure longitudinal vibration mode at the resonant frequency in excellent agreement with the design value. Furthermore, at the resonant frequency, the measured longitudinal vibration amplitude sit the nozzle tip increases as the number of Fourier horns (n) increases in good agreement with the theoretical values of 2/sup n/. Using this design, very high vibration amplitude gain at the nozzle tip can be achieved with no reduction in the tip cross-sectional area for contact of liquid to be atomized. Therefore, the required electric drive power should be drastically reduced, decreasing the likelihood of transducer failure in ultrasonic atomization.