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A summary of recent progress in model-based optimization of phased arrays for electromagnetic hyperthermia is reported. The electromagnetic phased array has the potential to overcome many of the difficulties associated with noninvasive hyperthermia, and is more effective if the driving amplitudes and phases of the array are carefully selected. A computationally efficient method for the optimization of the steady-state temperature distribution, a major driver of therapeutic response, has been developed. By employing a dual set of superposition principles, the technique minimizes the number of computationally expensive forward problems that must be solved in the course of an optimization. Additionally, a scheme that employs emerging noninvasive tomographic temperature estimation techniques, such as magnetic resonance thermometry, to perform optimization of a phased array has been developed and demonstrated experimentally. Conclusions about the potential value of each of the developed techniques are reached and directions for further research are indicated.