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Antennas implanted in a human body are largely applicable to hyperthermia and biotelemetry. To make practical use of antennas inside a human body, resonance characteristics of the implanted antennas and their radiation signature outside the body must be evaluated through numerical analysis and measurement setup. Most importantly, the antenna must be designed with an in-depth consideration given to its surrounding environment. In this paper, the spherical dyadic Green's function (DGF) expansions and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code are applied to analyze the electromagnetic characteristics of dipole antennas and low-profile patch antennas implanted in the human head and body. All studies to characterize and design the implanted antennas are performed at the biomedical frequency band of 402-405 MHz. By comparing the results from two numerical methodologies, the accuracy of the spherical DGF application for a dipole antenna at the center of the head is evaluated. We also consider how much impact a shoulder has on the performance of the dipole inside the head using FDTD. For the ease of the design of implanted low-profile antennas, simplified planar geometries based on a real human body are proposed. Two types of low-profile antennas, i.e., a spiral microstrip antenna and a planar inverted-F antenna, with superstrate dielectric layers are initially designed for medical devices implanted in the chest of the human body using FDTD simulations. The radiation performances of the designed low-profile antennas are estimated in terms of radiation patterns, radiation efficiency, and specific absorption rate. Maximum available power calculated to characterize the performance of a communication link between the designed antennas and an exterior antenna show how sensitive receivers are required to build a reliable telemetry link.
Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:52 , Issue: 8 )
Date of Publication: Aug. 2004