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Interface reliability assessments for copper/low-k products

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5 Author(s)
Hartfield, C.D. ; Texas Instrum. Inc., Dallas, TX, USA ; Ogawa, E.T. ; Young-Joon Park ; Tz-Cheng Chiu
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Multiple new materials are being adopted by the semiconductor industry at a rapid rate for both semiconductor devices and packages. These advances are driving significant investigation into the impact of these materials on device and package reliability. Active investigation is focused on the impact of back-end-of-line (BEOL) processing on Cu/low-k reliability. This paper discusses Cu/low-k BEOL interfacial reliability issues and relates key items from the assembly process and packaging viewpoint that should be managed in order to prevent adverse assembly impact on BEOL interfacial reliability. Reliability failure mechanisms discussed include interface diffusion-controlled events such as the well-known example of Cu electromigration (EM), as well as stress-migration voiding. Interface defectivity impact on dielectric breakdown and leakage is discussed. Lastly, assessments of assembly impact on these Cu/low-k interfacial concerns are highlighted.

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Device and Materials Reliability, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:4 ,  Issue: 2 )