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An important emerging requirement for computing systems is the ability to adapt at run time, taking advantage of local computing devices, and coping with dynamically changing resources. Three specific technical challenges in satisfying this requirement are to (1) select an appropriate set of applications or services to carry out a user's task, (2) allocate (possibly scarce) resources among those applications, and (3) reconfigure the applications or resource assignments if the situation changes. In this paper, we show how to provide a shared infrastructure that automates configuration decisions given a specification of the user's task. The heart of the approach is an analytical model and an efficient algorithm that can be used at run time to make near-optimal (re)configuration decisions. We validate this approach both analytically and by applying it to a representative scenario.