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Based on the electroelastic theory for piezoelectric plates, the vibration characteristics of piezoceramic disks with free-boundary conditions are investigated in this work by theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental measurement. The resonance of thin piezoceramic disks is classified into three types of vibration modes: transverse, tangential, and radial extensional modes. All of these modes are investigated in detail. Two optical techniques, amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI) and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV), are used to validate the theoretical analysis. Because the clear fringe patterns are shown only at resonant frequencies, both the resonant frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained experimentally at the same time by the proposed AF-ESPI method. Good quality of the interferometric fringe patterns for both the transverse and extensional vibration mode shapes are demonstrated. The resonant frequencies of the piezoceramic disk also are measured by the conventional impedance analysis. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that the transverse and tangential vibration modes cannot be measured by the impedance analysis, and only the resonant frequencies of extensional vibration modes can be obtained. Numerical calculations based on the finite element method also are performed, and the results are compared with the theoretical analysis and experimental measurements. It is shown that the finite element method (FEM) calculations and the experimental results agree fairly well for the resonant frequencies and mode shapes. The resonant frequencies and mode shapes predicted by theoretical analysis and calculated by finite element method are in good agreement, and the difference of resonant frequencies for both results with the thickness-to-diameter (h/D) ratios, ranging from 0.01 to 0.1, are presented.