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This paper proposes a methodology for the uncertainty evaluation of digital signal-processing algorithms including conditional instructions (if-then-else statements). In agreement with the suggestion of the ISO guide for the expression of uncertainty in measurement, a probabilistic approach is proposed. The application to different algorithms characterized by significant decision phases is approached theoretically, verifying the results also by suitable simulation. The generality and suitability of the proposed approach are then proved on a number of different real-world applications.