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The sensitivity of radar backscattering to the principal hydrological parameters, such as vegetation biomass, soil moisture, and surface roughness, is discussed. Results obtained by using multifrequency synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar, Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C, and European Remote Sensing 1/2 sensors are summarized. The sensitivity of L- and C-bands to spatial variations of plant and soil parameters is masked by the presence of surface roughness, which in turn affects the radar signal. However, from the observation of data collected at different dates and averaged over a relatively wide area that includes several fields, the correlation to soil moisture and vegetation biomass is found to be significant, since the effects of spatial variations are smoothed. On the other hand, the sensitivity to surface roughness becomes appreciable when multitemporal data are averaged in time, thus reducing the effects of temporal moisture variations.