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A single-ISA heterogeneous multi-core architecture is a chip multiprocessor composed of cores of varying size, performance, and complexity. This paper demonstrates that this architecture can provide significantly higher performance in the same area than a conventional chip multiprocessor. It does so by matching the various jobs of a diverse workload to the various cores. This type of architecture covers a spectrum of workloads particularly well, providing high single-thread performance when thread parallelism is low, and high throughput when thread parallelism is high. This paper examines two such architectures in detail, demonstrating dynamic core assignment policies that provide significant performance gains over naive assignment, and even outperform the best static assignment. It examines policies for heterogeneous architectures both with and without multithreading cores. One heterogeneous architecture we examine outperforms the comparable-area homogeneous architecture by up to 63%, and our best core assignment strategy achieves up to 31% speedup over a naive policy.