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Results of deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study of radiation defects in silicon layers, Si/SiO2 interface traps, and a charge in buried oxide formed under irradiation with 2.0 MeV electrons (105-106 rad.) or 245 MeV Kr (2.2×108 cm-2 and 1.4×109 cm-2) ions in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures are presented and discussed. SOI was fabricated by the wafer bonding and hydrogen cutting. It was found that electron irradiation leads to transformation of energy spectrum of the interface traps (relaxation of the bonded interface) in SOI. The main effect of high-energy Kr ion irradiation consists in formation of radiation defects in the top silicon layer as well as in the substrate. The fixed positive charge is introduced in the buried oxide under irradiation in both cases.