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This paper presents a novel method of target classification by means of a microaccelerometer. Its principle is that the seismic signals from moving vehicle targets are detected by a microaccelerometer, and targets are automatically recognized by the advanced signal processing method. The detection system based on the microaccelerometer is small in size, light in weight, has low power consumption and low cost, and can work under severe circumstances for many different applications, such as battlefield surveillance, traffic monitoring, etc. In order to extract features of seismic signals stimulated by different vehicle targets and to recognize targets, seismic properties of typical vehicle targets are researched in this paper. A technique of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is applied to the recognition of seismic signals for vehicle targets. An improved back propagation (BP) algorithm and ANN architecture have been presented to improve learning speed and avoid local minimum points in error curve. The improved BP algorithm has been used for classification and recognition of seismic signals of vehicle targets in the outdoor environment. Through experiments, it can be proven that target seismic properties acquired are correct, ANN is effective to solve the problem of classification and recognition of moving vehicle targets, and the microaccelerometer can be used in vehicle target recognition.