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The development of a general framework for the systematic management of multiple sensors in target tracking in the presence of clutter is described. The basis of the technique is to quantify, and subsequently control, the accuracy of target state estimation. The posterior Cramer-Rao lower bound (PCRLB) provides the means of achieving this aim by enabling us to determine a bound on the performance of all unbiased estimators of the unknown target state. The general approach is then to use optimization techniques to control the measurement process in order to achieve accurate target state estimation. We are concerned primarily with the deployment and utilization of limited sensor resources. We also allow for measurement origin uncertainty, with sensor measurements either target-generated or false alarms. An example in which the aim is to track a submarine by deploying a series of constant false-alarm rate passive sonobuoys is presented. We show that by making some standard assumptions, the effect of the measurement origin uncertainty can be expressed as a state-dependent information reduction factor which can be calculated off-line. This enables the Fisher information matrix (FIM) to be calculated quickly, allowing Cramer-Rao bounds to be utilized for real-time, dynamic sensor management. The sensor management framework is shown to determine deployment strategies that enable the target to be accurately localized, and at the same time efficiently utilize the limited sensor resources.
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:40 , Issue: 2 )
Date of Publication: April 2004