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A theoretical study is presented of the nonlinear amplitude modulation of waves propagating in unmagnetized plasmas contaminated by charged dust particles. Distinct well-known dusty plasma modes are explicitly considered, namely, the dust-acoustic wave, the dust-ion acoustic wave, and transverse dust-lattice waves. Using a multiple-scale technique, a nonlinear Schrodinger-type equation is derived, describing the evolution of the wave amplitude. A stability analysis reveals the possibility for modulational instability to occur, possibly leading to the formation of different types of envelope-localized excitations (solitary waves), under conditions which depend on the wave dispersion laws and intrinsic dusty plasma parameters.