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Grammar-based lossless universal refinement source coding

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2 Author(s)
Kieffer, J.C. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA ; En-hui Yang

A sequence y=(y1,...,yn) is said to be a coarsening of a given finite-alphabet source sequence x=(x1,...,xn) if, for some function φ, yi=φ(xi) (i=1,...,n). In lossless refinement source coding, it is assumed that the decoder already possesses a coarsening y of a given source sequence x. It is the job of the lossless refinement source encoder to furnish the decoder with a binary codeword B(x|y) which the decoder can employ in combination with y to obtain x. We present a natural grammar-based approach for finding the binary codeword B(x|y) in two steps. In the first step of the grammar-based approach, the encoder furnishes the decoder with O(√nlog2n) code bits at the beginning of B(x|y) which tell the decoder how to build a context-free grammar Gy which represents y. The encoder possesses a context-free grammar Gx which represents x; in the second step of the grammar-based approach, the encoder furnishes the decoder with code bits in the rest of B(x|y) which tell the decoder how to build Gx from Gy. We prove that our grammar-based lossless refinement source coding scheme is universal in the sense that its maximal redundancy per sample is O(1/log2n) for n source samples, with respect to any finite-state lossless refinement source coding scheme. As a by-product, we provide a useful notion of the conditional entropy H(Gx|Gy) of the grammar Gx given the grammar Gy, which is approximately equal to the length of the codeword B(x|y).

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Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:50 ,  Issue: 7 )