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We describe a new method for estimating the degree of "transientness" and "tonality" of a class of compound signals involving simultaneously transient and harmonic features. The key assumption is that both transient and tonal layers admit sparse expansions, respectively in wavelet and local cosine bases. The estimation is performed using particular form of entropy (or theoretical dimension) functions. We provide theoretical estimates on the behavior of the proposed estimators, as well as numerical simulations. Audio signal coding provides a natural field of application.