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The effect of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is one of the most important factors in correcting and validating the reflectance obtained from remotely sensed data. While the importance of BRDF has become widely recognized, bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) data measured for correction and validation are insufficient because of the technical difficulty of the measurement. The primary objective of the present research is to estimate BRDF effects from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Temporal ground-based BRDFs of rice paddy fields were estimated from ground measurements conducted in June and August 2002. MODIS-derived BRDFs obtained from MODIS reflectance data and ground-based BRDFs were estimated using the reciprocal form of the RossThick and LiSparse (RossThick-LiSparse-R) kernels, a semiempirical BRDF model adopted for the operational MODIS BRDF product. The MODIS-derived band 1 (620-680 nm) and band 2 (841-876 nm) BRDFs were compared with the ground-based BRDFs corresponding to the same waveband, respectively. The comparison results demonstrate that BRDFs of paddy fields change in accordance with paddy growth and that MODIS-derived BRDFs are closely related to ground-based BRDFs in most of the cases. It was also revealed that MODIS-derived BRDFs can be estimated to a high degree of accuracy when MODIS data necessary for the estimation are available.