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A high-temperature, low-power silicon tunnel diode oscillator transmitter with an on-board optical power converter is proposed for harsh environment MEMS sensing and wireless data telemetry applications. The prototype sensing and transmitting module employs a MEMS silicon capacitive pressure sensor performing pressure to frequency conversion and a spiral loop serving as an inductor for the LC tank resonator and also as a transmitting antenna. A GaAs photodiode converts an incoming laser beam to an electrical energy for powering the prototype design. The system achieves a telemetry performance up to 250°C over a distance of 1.5 m with a transmitter power consumption of approximately 60 μW.