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Since the proposal of turbo codes in 1993, many studies have appeared on this simple and new type of codes which give a powerful and practical performance of error correction. Although experimental results strongly support the efficacy of turbo codes, further theoretical analysis is necessary, which is not straightforward. It is pointed out that the iterative decoding algorithm of turbo codes shares essentially similar ideas with low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, with Pearl's belief propagation algorithm applied to a cyclic belief diagram, and with the Bethe approximation in statistical physics. Therefore, the analysis of the turbo decoding algorithm will reveal the mystery of those similar iterative methods. In this paper, we recapture and extend the geometrical framework initiated by Richardson to the information geometrical framework of dual affine connections, focusing on both of the turbo and LDPC decoding algorithms. The framework helps our intuitive understanding of the algorithms and opens a new prospect of further analysis. We reveal some properties of these codes in the proposed framework, including the stability and error analysis. Based on the error analysis, we finally propose a correction term for improving the approximation.