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We investigate techniques for efficiently executing multiquery workloads from data and computation-intensive applications in parallel and/or distributed computing environments. In this context, we describe a database optimization framework that supports data and computation reuse, query scheduling, and active semantic caching to speed up the evaluation of multiquery workloads. Its most striking feature is the ability of optimizing the execution of queries in the presence of application-specific constructs by employing a customizable data and computation reuse model. Furthermore, we discuss how the proposed optimization model is flexible enough to work efficiently irrespective of the parallel/distributed environment underneath. In order to evaluate the proposed optimization techniques, we present experimental evidence using real data analysis applications. For this purpose, a common implementation for the queries under study was provided according to the database optimization framework and deployed on top of three distinct experimental configurations: a shared memory multiprocessor, a cluster of workstations, and a distributed computational Grid-like environment.