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The radiation properties of several electrically small, folded spherical helix antennas are presented. The primary variables considered in the design of these antennas are the number of helical turns and the number of helical arms. The principle design objectives are to achieve self resonance, a low quality factor (Q), and a practical radiation resistance for small values of ka. Designs are presented for ka less than 0.5, where the antennas are self resonant, exhibiting an efficiency in excess of 95%, a Q within 1.5 times the fundamental limit, and a radiation resistance near 50 Ω. The relationship between the number of helical turns, the number of helical arms, and achieving self resonance at low frequencies is discussed.
Date of Publication: April 2004