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Reflection spectra of volume Bragg gratings written in bulk photosensitive silicate glass for wavelength division multiplexing applications are modeled using a transmission matrix approach. This allows for the examination of the effects of spatial perturbations along the grating due to chirp, apodization, compositional inhomogeneities, and index contrast saturation leading to reflection spectra that are asymmetric about the Bragg peak. Effects of the nonlinear relationship between index contrast in the glass and exposure flux on the reflection spectrum is also studied. Volume Bragg gratings are fabricated in UV exposure-sensitive silicate glasses containing alkali-halide nano-crystalline domains, and their reflection spectra are compared with calculation. The magnitude and uniformity of the index changes observed in our glass gratings make them useful in a wide range of wavelength multiplexing applications.