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This paper presents a low-power low-noise fully integrated bandpass operational amplifier for a variety of biomedical neural recording applications. A standard two-stage CMOS amplifier in a closed-loop resistive feedback configuration provides a stable ac gain of 39.3 dB at 1 kHz. A subthreshold PMOS input transistor is utilized to clamp the large and random dc open circuit potentials that normally exist at the electrode-electrolyte interface. The low cutoff frequency of the amplifier is programmable up to 50 Hz, while its high cutoff frequency is measured to be 9.1 kHz. The tolerable dc input range is measured to be at least ±0.25 V with a dc rejection factor of at least 29 dB. The amplifier occupies 0.107 mm2 in die area, and dissipates 115 μW from a 3 V power supply. The total measured input-referred noise voltage in the frequency range of 0.1-10 kHz is 7.8 μVrms. It is fabricated using AMI 1.5 μm double-poly double-metal n-well CMOS process. This paper presents full characterization of the dc, ac, and noise performance of this amplifier through in vitro measurements in saline using two different neural recording electrodes.
Date of Publication: May 2004