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A stochastic model for the global net-length distribution of a three-dimensional system-on-a-chip (3D-SoC) is derived. Using the results of this model, a global interconnect design window for a 3D-SoC is established by evaluating the constraints of: 1) wiring area; 2) clock wiring bandwidth; and 3) crosstalk noise. This window elucidates the optimum 3D-SoC global interconnect parameters for minimum pitch, minimum aspect ratio, and maximum clock frequency. In comparison to a two-dimensional system-on-a-chip (2D-SoC), the design window expands for a 3D-SoC to allow greater flexibility of interconnect parameters, thus increasing the guardbands to process variations. In addition, the limit on the maximum global clock frequency is revealed to increase as S/sup 2/, where S is the number of strata. This increase in on-chip signaling rate, however, comes at the expense of I/O density, highlighting the need for new high-density-I/O packaging techniques to exploit the full potential of 3D-SoC.