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Planar distributed periodic structures of microstrip-line and stripline types, which support left-handed (LH) waves are presented and their negative refractive index (NRI) properties are shown theoretically, numerically, and experimentally. The supported LH wave is fully characterized based on the composite right/left-handed transmission-line theory and the dispersion characteristics, refractive indexes, and Bloch impedance are derived theoretically. In addition, formulas to extract equivalent-circuit parameters from full-wave simulation are given. Open (microstrip) and closed (stripline) structures with a 5×5 mm2 unit cell operating at approximately 4 GHz are designed and characterized by full-wave finite-element-method simulations. A 20 × 6 unit-cell NRI lens structure interfaced with two parallel-plate waveguides is designed. The focusing/refocusing effect of the lens is observed by both circuit theory and full-wave simulations. Focusing in the NRI lens is also observed experimentally in excellent agreement with circuit theory and numerical predictions. This result represents the first experimental demonstration of NRI property using a purely distributed planar structure.
Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:52 , Issue: 4 )
Date of Publication: April 2004