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Performance potentials play a crucial role in performance sensitivity analysis and policy iteration of Markov decision processes. The potentials can be estimated on a single sample path of a Markov process. In this paper, we propose two potential-based online policy iteration algorithms for performance optimization of Markov systems. The algorithms are based on online estimation of potentials and stochastic approximation. We prove that with these two algorithms the optimal policy can be attained after a finite number of iterations. A simulation example is given to illustrate the main ideas and the convergence rates of the algorithms.