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Three-dimensional FDTD modeling of impulsive ELF propagation about the earth-sphere

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2 Author(s)
Simpson, J.J. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL, USA ; Taflove, Allen

This paper reports the application of an efficient finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm to model impulsive extremely low frequency (ELF) propagation within the entire Earth-ionosphere cavity. Periodic boundary conditions are used in conjunction with a three-dimensional latitude-longitude FDTD space lattice which wraps around the complete Earth-sphere. Adaptive combination of adjacent grid cells in the east-west direction minimizes cell eccentricity upon approaching the poles and hence maintains Courant stability for relatively large time steps. This technique permits a direct, three-dimensional time-domain calculation of impulsive, round-the-world ELF propagation accounting for arbitrary horizontal as well as vertical geometrical and electrical inhomogeneities/anisotropies of the excitation, ionosphere, lithosphere, and oceans. The numerical model is verified by comparing its results for ELF propagation attenuation with corresponding data reported in the literature.

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:52 ,  Issue: 2 )