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A new paradigm for the exploration of planetary environments involves the use of "microspacecraft," with a mass of approximately 10 kg. Instrumentation would take advantage of recent developments in the miniaturization of sensors. For chemical analysis, gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS) have been used in several NASA missions, but these instruments are too large for next-generation microspacecraft. Microscale versions of these instruments face challenges related to vacuum pumping for MS and delivery of carrier gas for GC. We are exploring the use of an alternative chemical detection technology that uses arrays of micromachined preconcentrators, filters and sensors.