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Future ultraprecision manufacturing systems will require intelligent machine tools equipped with effective in-process monitoring systems for the machining environment. To meet these requirements, a sensor is urgently required that combines multifunctionality, reliability, sensitivity and compactness. It is particularly difficult to monitor the machining status during ultraprecision machining, because the energy emissions and cutting forces are very small in comparison to conventional machining processes. A thermometry-type in-process microsensor is proposed to solve this problem. The proposed microsensor is made using a microfabrication process that is normally used in semiconductor production. The sensor size is 520×250 μm and the line width of the sensor device is 5 μm. The developed microsensor is mounted directly onto the surface of a tool tip at a distance of 0.8 mm from the cutting edge. The performance of the developed microsensor is investigated through a series of ultraprecision cutting experiments.