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This paper studies the problem of robust adaptive filtering in impulsive noise environment using a recursive least M-estimate algorithm (RLM). The RLM algorithm minimizes a robust M-estimator-based cost function instead of the conventional mean square error function (MSE). Previous work has showed that the RLM algorithm offers improved robustness to impulses over conventional recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. In this paper, the mean and mean square convergence behaviors of the RLM algorithm under the contaminated Gaussian impulsive noise model is analyzed. A lattice structure-based fast RLM algorithm, called the Huber Prior Error Feedback-Least Squares Lattice (H-PEF-LSL) algorithm is derived. Part of the H-PEF-LSL algorithm was presented in ICASSP 2001. It has an order O(N) arithmetic complexity, where N is the length of the adaptive filter, and can be viewed as a fast implementation of the RLM algorithm based on the modified Huber M-estimate function and the conventional PEF-LSL adaptive filtering algorithm. Simulation results show that the transversal RLM and the H-PEF-LSL algorithms have better performance than the conventional RLS and other RLS-like robust adaptive algorithms tested when the desired and input signals are corrupted by impulsive noise. Furthermore, the theoretical and simulation results on the convergence behaviors agree very well with each other.