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Atomic vapor cells for miniature frequency references

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7 Author(s)
S. Knappe ; Time & Frequency Div., Nat. Inst. of Stand. & Technol., Boulder, CO, USA ; V. Velichansky ; H. G. Robinson ; L. Liew
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We report on the fabrication of millimeter-sized vapor cells and their performance in atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). We discuss two fabrication techniques. The first one is based on hollow-core pyrex fibers, fused with a CO2 laser or micro-torch, and the second one involves anodic bonding of micro-machined silicon wafers to pyrex. Key aspects of the discussion are the performance of the cell in frequency references, the potential for further miniaturization of the cells and the ability to manufacture them on a large scale with reproducible performance.

Published in:

Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum, 2003. Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International

Date of Conference:

4-8 May 2003