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Simulation study of view angle effects on thermal infrared measurements over heterogeneous surfaces

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4 Author(s)
Coret, L. ; Centre d''Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphere, CNES-CNRS-IRD-UPS, Toulouse, France ; Briottet, X. ; Kerr, Y.H. ; Chehbouni, A.

The issue of deriving cross-scale aggregation rules has been extensively investigated over the last two decades. A widely used approach consists of formulating grid-scale surface radiances using the same equations that govern the patch-scale behavior but whose arguments are the aggregate expressions of those at the patch-scale. This approach derives the area-averaged or effective radiative surface temperature as might be observed using low spatial resolution satellite data. The problem however is that such satellite data exhibit large directional effects and no study has addressed this issue. The present work tackles this problem in the thermal infrared domain. The directional effects are studied by modeling. Thus, an infrared sensor observing a two-dimensional (2-D) heterogeneous plane surface is modeled. The 2-D heterogeneous plane surface is simulated by a grid with two homogeneous elements (vegetation-bare soil). The angular properties of the local surfaces, assumed homogeneous, are calculated by a multiple scattering model. The equivalent angular radiance of the complete heterogeneous scene is then determined by applying the aggregation method. This radiance is very sensitive to the surface heterogeneity, especially when the spatial variation of the surface temperature is significant and when the directional behavior of the surface is non-Lambertian. As a result, an angular variation of 6% on radiance was obtained on a heterogenous surface between a zenith angle of 70° and on-nadir measurements.

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:42 ,  Issue: 3 )