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This paper presents a framework for a cluster system that is suited for high-resolution image processing over the Internet during surgery. The system realizes high-performance computing (HPC) assisted surgery, which allows surgeons to utilize HPC resources remote from the operating room. One application available in the system is an intraoperative estimator for the range of motion (ROM) adjustment in total hip replacement (THR) surgery. In order to perform this computation-intensive estimation during surgery, we parallelize the ROM estimator on a cluster of 64 PCs, each with two CPUs. Acceleration techniques such as dynamic load balancing and data compression methods are incorporated into the system. The system also provides a remote-access service over the Internet with a secure execution environment. We applied the system to an actual THR surgery performed at Osaka University Hospital and confirmed that it realizes intraoperative ROM estimation without degrading the resolution of images and limiting the area for estimations.