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The first true 2-F/sup 2//bit flash cell with a programming throughput of 10 MB/s was developed. In this cell, diffusion-layer local bit lines of an assist-gate AND-type flash are replaced by inversion-layer ones under assist gates. The bit-line pitch is thus reduced to 2 F. A drain-disturbance-free and soft-write-free flash cell was produced by means of a new diffusion-layer-less technology. Source-side injection programming is applicable to the new flash cell; therefore, the cell programming time is reduced to 1 /spl mu/s. The smallest memory cell (0.0162 /spl mu/m/sup 2//bit) achieved to date was accomplished by using a 90-nm technology node and applying multi-level cell technology.