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A new method based on microwave (MW) energy addition to accelerated electron beam (EB) energy for material processing was developed. In order to investigate this method, several specially designed facilities which permit separate, successive, and simultaneous MW and EB irradiation were carried out. These facilities as well as the associated MW and EB injection systems are described. In comparison with separate EB or MW irradiation, the simultaneous EB and MW irradiation of the acrylamide-acrylic acid aqueous solution leads to the highest molecular weight values simultaneously with the smallest Huggins' constant values. Also, the absorbed dose is reduced from 0.8 kGy in the separate EB irradiation case to 0.4 kGy in the simultaneous EB and MW irradiation applied to acrylamide-acrylic acid co-polymerization. Significant higher vulcanization degrees are obtained only for higher EB irradiation doses, especially in terms of the values of the 300% modulus and tensile strength. By using simultaneous EB and MW irradiation, compared to separate EB irradiation, the same maximum value of 300% modulus is obtained for EB absorbed dose and irradiation time of 2.5 times lower at 60-W MW power and five times lower at 100-W MW power. Also, the same maximum value of tensile strength is obtained for EB absorbed dose and irradiation time of four times lower at 60-W MW power and 5.33 times lower at 100-W MW power. The combined EB and MW irradiation applied to the SO2 and NOx removal from the simulated flue gases demonstrated that for the same removal efficiency of 98% for SO2 and 76% for NOx at separate EB irradiation of 40 kGy, the required absorbed dose is about two times smaller for simultaneous EB and MW irradiation.
Date of Publication: Jan.-Feb. 2004