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We theoretically and experimentally investigated lasing and resonant characteristics in photonic crystal lasers with point defects and/or point and line composite defects. The finite-difference time domain simulation showed that various resonant modes can occur in arbitrary defect geometries. A GaInAsP airbridge photonic crystal slab with a lattice constant of ∼0.42 μm, a hole diameter of ∼0.25 μm, a sidewall angle of ∼90°, and a sidewall roughness of ∼10 nm, was fabricated by Cl2/Xe inductively coupled plasma etching, in which ions and radicals were balanced by optimizing the gas pressure and the bias voltage. The room temperature pulsed lasing was observed with a threshold irradiated power of 1.4 mW by photopumping. The possibility of the continuous-wave (CW) lasing was also discussed with the estimation of the thermal resistance. The mode control in some composite defects was confirmed from resonant photoluminescence peaks under CW condition.