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Optimal power flow with transient stability (OTS) is a nonlinear optimisation problem in functional space that can be transformed to a static optimisation problem via constraint transcription techniques. However, the solution of the transformed OTS by ordinary numerical methods involves a massive calculation due to the stability constraints. Hence, the authors propose a penalty-based approach for OTS, in which the adjoint equation method is applied to evaluate the gradient of the penalty term associated with the stability constraints. It is demonstrated that the implementation of the adjoint equation method significantly reduces the computational burden in solving the OTS. A numerical test on a power system using prototype code is presented.