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Adjoint techniques for sensitivity analysis in high-frequency structure CAD

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3 Author(s)
Nikolova, N.K. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ont., Canada ; Bandler, J.W. ; Bakr, M.H.

There is a revival of the interest in adjoint sensitivity analysis techniques. This is partly because current computer-aided-design software based on full-wave electromagnetic (EM) solvers remains too slow for the purposes of practical high-frequency structure design despite the increasing capacity of computers. The adjoint-variable methods for design sensitivity analysis offer computational speed and accuracy. They can be used for efficient gradient-based optimization, in tolerance and yield analysis. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis for circuits has been well studied and extensively covered in the microwave literature. In comparison, sensitivities with full-wave analysis techniques have attracted little attention, and there have been few applications into feasible and versatile algorithms. We review adjoint-variable methods used in high-frequency structure design with both circuit analysis techniques and full-wave EM analysis techniques. A brief discussion on adjoint-based sensitivity analysis for nonlinear dynamic systems is also included.

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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:52 ,  Issue: 1 )