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In this paper, direct and indirect adaptive output-feedback fuzzy decentralized controllers for a class of uncertain large-scale nonlinear systems are developed. The proposed controllers do not need the availability of the state variables. By designing the state observer, the adaptive fuzzy systems, which are used to model the unknown functions, can be constructed using the state estimations, and a new hybrid adaptive fuzzy control methodology is proposed by combining the adaptive fuzzy systems with H∞ control and the sliding mode control techniques. Based on Lyapunov stability theorem, the stability of the closed-loop systems can be verified. Moreover, the proposed overall control schemes guarantee that all the signals involved are bounded and achieve the H∞-tracking performance. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, simulation results are illustrated in this paper.