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The computational science and engineering communities can build an infrastructure to use the observations, computational models, and knowledge about Earth system science to enable decision support for the global, national, regional, and local management of the Earth's natural resources. A proposed architecture for an Earth resources management infrastructure based on a NASA approach is presented. The infrastructure uses observations, model outputs, climate data records, and various other data types as inputs. These comprehensive data sets and model outputs synthesize with domain knowledge to create outcomes that affect policies for managing the Earth's natural resources.