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Disturbance-observer (DOB)-based controller design is one of the most popular methods in the field of motion control. In this paper, the generalized disturbance compensation framework, named the robust internal-loop compensator (RIC) is introduced and an advanced design method of a DOB is proposed based on the RIC. The mixed sensitivity optimization problem, which is the main issue of DOB design, is also solved through the parametrization of the DOB in the RIC framework. Differently from conventional methods, the Q-filter is separated from the mixed sensitivity optimization problem and a systematic design law for the DOB is proposed. This guarantees the robustness and optimality of the DOB and enables the design for unstable plants.