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The current practice of graphical icon design is more an art than a science. We propose a scientific-oriented methodology for graphical icon design. It incorporates several ideas from data/system modeling and natural languages in the design and interpretation of icons. Specifically, it incorporates ideas of multileveling modeling and type-instance concepts. It also incorporates the concepts of grammar structures from alphabetic-based languages such as English and the principles of ideogram construction of graphical icon-based natural languages such as Chinese and ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. The methodology also draws on other scientific disciplines such as cognitive science and user testing.