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Accurate semi-empirical model for annealed proton exchanged waveguides in z-cut lithium niobate

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4 Author(s)
Roussev, R. ; Dept. of Appl. Phys., Stanford Univ., CA, USA ; Xiuping Xie ; Parameswaran, K. ; Fejer, M.M.

This study develops an accurate method to estimate the proton dose after proton exchange (PE) by applying a soft anneal step, typically 10-30 hours at 210°C, which solves the problems of instability and multi-phase composition of PE waveguides. The soft anneal process slows down with time and practically self-terminates once the refractive index step at 633 nm drops below 0.105, corresponding to a concentration x = 0.44 in the film HxLi1-xNbO3. Proton dose estimate after soft anneal can be done with 0.25 to 0.5% precision by prism coupling measurements allowing control of the waveguide nonlinear optical frequency converters (WNOFC) quasi-phase-matching (QPM) wavelength with 0.5-1 nm accuracy.

Published in:

Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003. LEOS 2003. The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE  (Volume:1 )

Date of Conference:

27-28 Oct. 2003

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