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Servers: high-end, multiprocessor systems running commercial workloads, have typically included extensive cooling systems and resided in custom-built rooms for high-power delivery. Recently, as transistor density and demand for computing resources have rapidly increased, even these high-end systems face energy-use constraints. Commercial-server energy management now focuses on conserving power in the memory and microprocessor subsystems. Because their workloads are typically structured as multiple application programs, system-wide approaches are more applicable to multiprocessor environments in commercial servers than techniques that primarily apply to single-application environments, such as those based on compiler optimizations.