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High Q copper inductors were fabricated on low-cost and low-loss BT and glass substrates using an electroplating process. A differential LC VCO circuit was designed using these high Q inductors at 2.4 GHz. Flip chip and MCM technology were applied to assemble the active chips on BT and glass substrates. The inductors exhibited a Q-factor as high as 30 at 2.4 GHz. VCOs with copper inductors on BT and glass substrates had a phase noise of -108 dBc/Hz at 600 kHz offset for a 2.4 GHz carrier, which is a 6 dB improvement compared with the one with on-chip Al inductors.
Date of Conference: 21-24 Sept. 2003