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Work-arounds, make-work, and kludges

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2 Author(s)
P. Koopman ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA ; R. R. Hoffman

Paradigms are often defined partly in terms of what they are not, or in terms of what they are reacting against. The paradigm of human-centered computing is no exception. We discuss about a user-hostile system. We decided that the terms kludge and work-around, and also the related concept of make-work, has yet to be clearly defined for the intelligent systems community. Human-centered systems are different from user-hostile systems as well as from systems based on a designer-centered approach. We try to clarify the senses of these three terms and suggest ways we might study work-around, make-work, and kludges as an integral part of human-computer systems-rather than as embarrassing necessities that are best swept under the computing research rug.

Published in:

IEEE Intelligent Systems  (Volume:18 ,  Issue: 6 )