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Traffic congestion in urban road and freeway networks leads to a strong degradation of the network infrastructure and accordingly reduced throughput, which can be countered via suitable control measures and strategies. After illustrating the main reasons for infrastructure deterioration due to traffic congestion, a comprehensive overview of proposed and implemented control strategies is provided for three areas: urban road networks, freeway networks, and route guidance. Selected application results, obtained from either simulation studies or field implementations, are briefly outlined to illustrate the impact of various control actions and strategies. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of future needs in this important technical area.